LA CRISI LIBICA

LA CRISI LIBICA:

CRESCENTI  LIMITI  a SOVRANITA’ ed  INDIPENDENZA NAZIONALE

di Pier Luigi Priori*

E’ raro che i miei incontri con  MAURIZIO d’ORLANDO non portino ad opinioni interessanti. Maurizio si laureò in Economia Politica in Bocconi con 110 e lode…. Ha poi sempre visto i grandi fatti dell’economia per quello che sono e non per come ci vengono presentati. Il fatto d’essere un  libero pensatore ed un economista fuori dal sistema non lo ha certo mai agevolato… è ora collaboratore di Asia-News del PIME, Pontificio Istituto Missioni Estere.

Vi riporto qui di seguito una serie di sue considerazioni sulla crisi libica, che sono anche mie. Sembrerebbero paradossali a chi sa quanto io sia stato disturbato dalle estreme passate manifestazioni di nostra amicizia per Gheddafi, e dalla firma dei relativi trattati….ma i nostri interessi in Libia e gli accordi con Gheddafi, che ci piacciano o meno,  erano ormai diventati un dato acquisito di fatto…

Per quelli che non avessero ancora capito che questo intervento “umanitario” è in realtà una guerra neocoloniale (preludio di molto altro e di peggio ancora), troverete qui di seguito alcuni articoli che vi interesseranno.

  • Bloomberg riporta che la prima cosa che hanno fatto i ribelli è stata di costituire una Banca Centrale a Bengasi ed una Compagnia Petrolifera Nazionale, sempre a Bengasi.
  • Nel suo discorso Obama ha affermato che l’embargo non si applica alle esportazioni di petrolio (se provenienti dalla suddetta Compagnia Petrolifera Nazionale, l’unica ricono-sciuta, quella dei ribelli).
  • Inoltre il generale americano James Stavridis ha affermato che il Consiglio Nazionale Provvisorio di Transizione (Interim Transitional National Council)  secondo fonti ei servizi d’informazione “potrebbe” essere infiltrato da aderenti di Al Qaeda.

Anche FRANCO BECHIS su Libero ha documentato che da sei mesi la Francia ha complottato per rovesciare il regime libico per fini d’interessi petroliferi e commerciali.

L’Italia ha insomma prestato le proprie basi ed ha partecipato in forma subordinata ad una guerra che in primo luogo favorisce interessi francesi, inglesi ed americani e va a tutto danno del Ministero del Tesoro italiano che è proprietario di quota consistente dell’Eni. In secondo luogo l’Italia ha sostenuto una guerra di palese aggressione ad un paese con cui appena tre mesi prima aveva firmato un trattato con cui s’impegnava a non fornire le proprie basi per un attacco contro il suo territorio. Soprattutto, rimettendosi in tutto e per tutto alle decisioni dell’ONU, ha sottoscritto il principio della fine della sovranità nazionale, perché è stato chiaro sin dall’inizio che da subito in Libia c’è stata una sollevazione armata, non manifestazioni più o meno spontanee di civili disarmati.

Le risoluzioni 1970 e 1973 dell’ONU sanciscono l’accentuarsi della tendenza verso una unicagovernance mondiale e gli enormi limiti, se non la fine di ogni sovranità ed indipendenza nazionale e di non ingerenza negli affari interni di un paese internazionalmente riconosciuto come sovrano. Non perciò solo una guerra neocoloniale, ma è un passaggio davvero epocale, è la fine di un’epoca iniziata con il Trattato di Westfalia del 1648, “Cuius regio, eius religio”.

Noi tutti e gli stessi americani siamo prigionieri di una cricca transnazionale i cui fini e contorni sono poco chiari se non alla luce di inquietanti analisi finora declassate a tesi complottiste.

Questa guerra è poi incostituzionale sia negli USA (c’è bisogno di un voto del Congresso) che in Italia. Fornire le basi per il lancio di attacchi aerei, come ha fatto l’Italia, è un atto di guerra, e la Costituzione della Repubblica Italiana non consente che una difesa, non una guerra d’attacco. Sul realismo della Costituzione repubblicana se ne può discutere. Se non piace, però, prima di palesemente violarla bisognerebbe modificarla.

Inquietante è l’opera del presidente Giorgio Napolitano. Il compito di Napolitano sarebbe proprio quello di garantire il rispetto della Costituzione. Una risoluzione dell’ONU ed un voto su una mozione approvata dal Parlamento italiano non possono prevalere sui dettami costituzionali. Invece Napolitano se ne va in giro per il mondo ed in particolare all’ONU a fare proclami di politica estera, che non gli competono, come non compete a lui spiegare l’azione del governo. Al massimo poteva portare il saluto del popolo italiano e nient’altro. Invece, e non solo in quest’occasione, Napolitano si atteggia a capo dell’esecutivo, preventivamente sottoponendo al proprio giudizio questa o quella legge, approvando o disapprovando questo o quel ministro. Forse ha dimenticato che in Italia la Costituzione ha stabilito una democrazia parlamentare non presidenziale…

Viviamo cambiamenti epocali: prepariamoci ad eventi epocali….Qui di seguito alcuni link in lingua originale:

http://www.zerohedge.com/article/us-purchase-oil-libyan-rebels-thus-funding-flickers-al-qaeda

US To Purchase Oil From Libyan Rebels, Thereby Funding “Flickers” Of Al Qaeda

Following recent news that the supremely organized Libyan rebels have established their own central bank and oil company (does anyone recall when rebels merely rebelled instead of immediately setting up an oil export infrastructure and a fiat counterfeiting authority… those were the days), we now learn that this impressively “impromptu” development may have actually been intended all along. From Reuters: “The United States on Monday gave a green light to sales of Libyan crude oil from rebel-held territory, giving a potential boost to forces battling Muammar Gaddafi. A U.S. Treasury Department official said Libyan rebels would not be subject to U.S. sanctions if they avoid entities linked to Gaddafi’s regime, which would allow them to sell oil under their control.” And confirming just hos hypocritical any international embargo attempts are, here is the Un confirming that when it comes to determining international priorities, the only word that matters is the one that did not figure once in Obama’s Libya speech yesterday: “There is no U.N. embargo on Libyan oil,” a U.N. Security Council diplomat told Reuters on condition of anonymity. “The rebels can sell oil. But they can’t do it through the Libyan National Oil Corporation.”” And the kicker: according to the US NATO leader among those profiting from this latest move of US desperation is none other than Al Qaeda.

From Reuters:

The rebels, who retook a number of oil fields and terminals in eastern Libya over the weekend and were advancing west toward Gaddafi’s hometown of Sirte, must first establish clear lines of control and payment systems that do not involve Libya’s National Oil Corp, its central bank nor any other government entity, the official said

No special permission would be needed from the Security Council’s Libya sanctions committee, which oversees compliance with the sanctions, for the rebels to sell oil, envoys said.
The Treasury on February 25 banned U.S. transactions with Libya’s state oil producer, the central bank and other state entities in an effort to cut off revenues to Gaddafi’s regime, in line with sanctions imposed by the U.N. and European Union.

With the backing of Western air strikes, Libyan rebels have retaken the main oil terminal cities in eastern Libya, including Es Sider, Ras Lanuf, Brega, Zueitina and Tobruk.

A senior Libyan rebel official said on Monday that rebels were in “active discussions” to have sanctions lifted on sales of oil from east Libyan fields.

Ali Tarhouni, who is in charge of the rebels’ economic, financial and oil matters in Benghazi said the fields were capable of pumping 100,000 to 130,000 barrels per day of crude, and most of this would be exported because of low refining capacity in eastern Libya. Before the crisis began, Libya was producing about 1.6 million barrels per day.

“We hope they will be lifted for the liberated areas as quickly as possible,” Tarhouni said of the sanctions. “Not with everybody, but with some countries.”

While we will not comment on the apparent hypocrisy of this latest development by the light crude starved US administration (sorry Saudi Arabia, nobody buys your lies about excess capacity anymore – proof here), what we will comment on is that the next time Gaddafi’s forces retake any and all oil fields currently in rebel hands, and pumping on behalf of the US, they will likely not receive a very friendly treatment. Especially since it now appears that K-Daf

Gadhafi cracking, there is a “more than reasonable” chance of Gadhafi leaving power, Adm. James Stavridis said before the Senate Armed was actually spot on when he argued that Al Qaeda is reinforcing the rebels:

There is a good chance NATO pressure will encourage Libyan tyrant Moammar Gadhafi to leave power, the U.S. NATO commander told Congress Tuesday, but the opposition that could come in the Libyan leader’s wake has “flickers” of al Qaeda.

While there is a wide range of possible outcomes in Libya, running from a static stalemate to Services Committee, But potential “flickers” of al Qaeda and Hezbollah elements have been seen in intelligence regarding the Libyan opposition, which is poised to take power if Gadhafi leaves, Stavridis said. However, he added there is no evidence of a significant presence of al Qaeda or other terrorist groups. Stavridis is also the commander of U.S. European Command.
“The intelligence that I’m receiving at this point makes me feel that the leadership that I’m seeing are responsible men and women who are struggling against Col. Gadhafi,” Stavridis added.

There is probably “a sprinkling of extremists to perhaps include al Qaeda” in Libya among the rebels, “but no one should think the opposition is being led by al Qaeda or one of its affiliates,” the official said. Al Qaeda has had a presence in North Africa for years. It “wouldn’t be surprising if small numbers — a handful”– of extremists or al Qaeda are in Libya.

Thus in one easy step, the administration appears to have lost all its prior animosity toward Al Qaeda (and after all September 11 was so long ago…), and is now bypassing international embargoes to deal directly with them.

What next: we get confirmation that Al Qaeda is also providing crystal meth to Libya’s rebels?

http://www.bloomberg.com/news/2011-03-21/libyan-rebel-council-sets-up-oil-company-to-replace-qaddafi-s.html

BLOOMBERG

Libyan Rebel Council Forms Oil Company to Replace Qaddafi’s

By Bill Varner – Mar 22, 2011

Libyan rebels in Benghazi said they have created a new national oil company to replace the corporation controlled by leader Muammar Qaddafi whose assets were frozen by the United Nations Security Council.

The Transitional National Council released a statement announcing the decision made at a March 19 meeting to establish the “Libyan Oil Company as supervisory authority on oil production and policies in the country, based temporarily in Benghazi, and the appointment of an interim director general” of the company.

The Council also said it “designated the Central Bank of Benghazi as a monetary authority competent in monetary policies in Libya and the appointment of a governor to the Central Bank of Libya, with a temporary headquarters in Benghazi.”

The Security Council adopted a resolution on March 17 that froze the foreign assets of the Libyan National Oil Corp. and the Central Bank of Libya, both described in the text as “a potential source of funding” for Qaddafi’s regime.

Libya holds Africa’s largest oil reserve. Output has fallen to fewer than 400,000 barrels a day,Shokri Ghanem, chairman of the National Oil Corp., said on March 19. The country produced 1.59 million barrels a day in January, according to estimates compiled by Bloomberg. Exports may be halted for “many months” because of sanctions and unrest, the International Energy Agency said.

‘Extended Shutdown’

Brent crude for May settlement on the London-based ICE Futures Europe exchange fell 0.3 percent to $114.62 as of 8:50 a.m. It surged to a 2 1/2-year high of $119.79 on Feb 24 as geopolitical tensions spread throughout the Middle East and North Africa.

The European benchmark will average $109 a barrel this year, up from a previous forecast of $98, on expectations of an “extended shutdown” of Libyan oil supplies, Societe Generale SA said in a monthly review dated yesterday.

The statement by the Transitional National Council also said the rebels would “urgently prepare a file on the referral of Qaddafi and his gang and his associates involved in the killing of Libyans to the International Criminal Court.”

The Security Council referred allegations of human rights violations by the Qaddafi regime to the court in a resolution adopted on Feb. 26.

The statement said the council would begin choosing ambassadors to foreign countries.

The UN said yesterday that Deputy Ambassador Ibrahim Dabbashi, who broke with the regime last month and said he was then representing the rebels, was no longer Libya’s accredited ambassador. Ambassador Mohammed Shalgham, who also broke with the regime, similarly lost his accreditation when Qaddafi appointed former UN General Assembly President Abdussalam Treki as envoy to the world body.

Treki hasn’t presented his credentials yet to Secretary- General Ban Ki-moon, a prerequisite for officials taking the post. To contact the reporter on this story: Bill Varner at the United Nations at  wvarner@bloomberg.net

To contact the editor responsible for this story: Mark Silva in Washington at msilva34@bloomberg.net

®2011 BLOOMBERG L.P. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED.

Reuters

http://www.reuters.com/article/2011/03/28/us-libya-oil-rebels-idUSTRE72R6X620110328

U.S. says Libyan rebels may sell oil

Mon, Mar 28 2011

By David Lawder

WASHINGTON (Reuters) – The United States on Monday gave a green light to sales of Libyan crude oil from rebel-held territory, giving a potential boost to forces battling Muammar Gaddafi.

A U.S. Treasury Department official said Libyan rebels would not be subject to U.S. sanctions if they avoid entities linked to Gaddafi’s regime, which would allow them to sell oil under their control.

“The rebels are not part of the government of Libya. They are not subject to the sanctions,” the official said.

But the rebels, who retook a number of oil fields and terminals in eastern Libya over the weekend and were advancing west toward Gaddafi’s hometown of Sirte, must first establish clear lines of control and payment systems that do not involve Libya’s National Oil Corp, its central bank nor any other government entity, the official said.

U.N. diplomats echoed these sentiments, helping further clarify the status of rebel-held oil, which could provide vital revenues to forces trying to topple Gaddafi.

“There is no U.N. embargo on Libyan oil,” a U.N. Security Council diplomat told Reuters on condition of anonymity. “The rebels can sell oil. But they can’t do it through the Libyan National Oil Corporation.”

No special permission would be needed from the Security Council’s Libya sanctions committee, which oversees compliance with the sanctions, for the rebels to sell oil, envoys said.

The Treasury on February 25 banned U.S. transactions with Libya’s state oil producer, the central bank and other state entities in an effort to cut off revenues to Gaddafi’s regime, in line with sanctions imposed by the U.N. and European Union.

It later put another 14 subsidiaries of the National Oil Corp, or NOC, on its blacklist, which also seeks to freeze any Gaddafi regime assets under U.S. jurisdiction.

With the backing of Western air strikes, Libyan rebels have retaken the main oil terminal cities in eastern Libya, including Es Sider, Ras Lanuf, Brega, Zueitina and Tobruk.

A senior Libyan rebel official said on Monday that rebels were in “active discussions” to have sanctions lifted on sales of oil from east Libyan fields.

Ali Tarhouni, who is in charge of the rebels’ economic, financial and oil matters in Benghazi said the fields were capable of pumping 100,000 to 130,000 barrels per day of crude, and most of this would be exported because of low refining capacity in eastern Libya. Before the crisis began, Libya was producing about 1.6 million barrels per day.

“We hope they will be lifted for the liberated areas as quickly as possible,” Tarhouni said of the sanctions. “Not with everybody, but with some countries.”

QATAR MARKETING PLAN

Tarhouni said he hoped the first shipment associated with a plan to market rebel-held crude through Gulf oil producer Qatar could happen within a week but some “technical details” need to be worked out.

The U.S. Treasury official declined to comment on the Libyan rebel plan. Qatar became the first Arab country to recognize the rebels as the Libyan people’s legitimate representative.

The rebel successes against Gaddafi’s forces pushed oil prices lower. Brent crude futures fell 79 cents to settle at $114.80 a barrel.

The U.S. official emphasized that the Treasury has not altered any of the sanctions on Gaddafi’s regime, which involve freezes on more than $32 billion in assets. But the sanctions do not apply to Libyan entities that are outside of the government and outside of Gaddafi’s control.

One of the NOC subsidiaries subjected to sanctions but controlled by rebels is Benghazi-based Arabian Gulf Oil Co, or Agoco. Its status remained unclear on Monday, but the Treasury had left the door open to a possible lifting of sanctions when it put this exploration, production and refining unit on the blacklist.

“Treasury will continue monitoring the National Oil Corporation’s operations in Libya,” it said at the time. “Should National Oil Corporation subsidiaries or facilities come under different ownership and control, Treasury may consider authorizing dealings with such entities.”

It could keep the sanctions in place, but issue licenses that allow firms to transact business with certain NOC subsidiaries.

A U.N. Security Council diplomat told Reuters that Agoco was “most likely” subject to U.N. sanctions in addition to U.S. and EU measures. However, he said that it would probably be possible to “work something out” so the rebels could sell their oil, such as by creating a new oil export company.

MANY RISKS

Although the clouds over rebel-held oil may be starting to clear from a sanctions standpoint, there are many practical hurdles to oil traders loading up tankers.

Marathon Oil Corp., which has the largest Libyan presence of any U.S. company with 18.8 percent of its total production coming from there, said it is not currently lifting crude oil from Libya given the political and civil unrest, and has no further comment.

Its Waha concession is located in the Sirte basin. Rebel forces were pushing west into that region on Monday.

Trading sources told Reuters they did not think the latest developments would easily unblock Libya’s oil trade, which has been suspended for weeks due to sanctions and heavy fighting.

Firms buying crude would have to be absolutely sure that they are not violating any sanctions before they proceed and establish clear title to the oil, traders said. Finding ship owners and insurers willing to handle cargoes worth tens of millions of dollars may be difficult.

“We need to understand who we are trading with, what sort of company is selling crude, who controls it, who manages it,” a trader with a major oil company said.

(Additional reporting by Alexander Dziadosz in Benghazi, Louis Charbonneau at the United Nations, Anna Driver in New Orleans, Ikuko Kurahone and Dmitry Zhdannikov in London; Editing by Leslie Adler, Dan Grebler, Diane Craft and Andrew Hay)

 

                                                                                                        *Centro Riforma Etica delle Istituzioni

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